Recent Publications

Omar N. Cham

In the midst of this crisis, irregular migrants and asylum seekers still remain among the most vulnerable to the virus. The disruption to their informal sources of livelihoods due to the virus, means that many are at risk of experiencing severe food shortages and nutrition related challenges. In addition, they are confronted with limited access to health care and access to government support. Whilst undocumented migrants and asylum seekers contend with these challenges, a bigger fear remains, the fear of deportation. The fear of deportation makes undocumented migrants and asylum seekers reluctant to share vital information about their health, and even ask for basic medical assistance given the emergence of the immigration debate in the coronavirus conversation. Whilst deportations have been paused in Europe due to the wide shutdown of global aviation, the USA amidst the virus, continues to carry out deportations. Notwithstanding, one question at the center of this debate is whether a moratorium, as a result of COVID-19 on deportations from Europe will be announced, once a sense of normalcy returns (most likely in summer). If so how long will that moratorium be in place for? And what does COVID-19 mean for the protection of the rights of asylum seekers?

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Luis Simón
Alexander Lanoszka

The demise of the INF Treaty in 2019 raises questions about the future of deterrence in Europe. For more than a decade, Russia has sought to leverage the potential of precision-strike technologies to strengthen its missile arsenal, having developed systems that either violated INF range regulations or were just below the threshold. As the termination of the treaty removes any outstanding legal barriers to the deployment of ground-based,“theater-range” systems, questions related to the missile balance become central to European security. Of particular importance is the Baltic region, where Russia appears to have acquired a position of “local escalation dominance” that could drive a strategic wedge within NATO. In this essay, we assess what a post-INF Treaty context may mean in light of recent NATO efforts to deter Russia. We argue that the introduction of ground-based, theater-range missiles could help NATO restore the local strategic balance in the Baltic region, thereby strengthening deterrence and helping to create the necessary leverage to get Russia back into meaningful arms control talks in the future. 

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Irina van der Vet
Daisy Bisoffi

The role of educators in the prevention of violent extremism and radicalisation has been widely discussed in Europe since the late 2000s. The precursors for these debates have been the series of terrorist attacks throughout Europe and more recently, the rise of right-wing extremists movements. This Policy Brief examines the potential of educators in preventing and countering violent extremism. It draws upon an experiment on designing innovative solutions for teachers of secondary schools in Belgium, conducted within the framework of the European Union Horizon 2020 project, Mindb4ACT. Based on the findings of this pilot project, the brief outlines recommendations for educators and policymakers and offers trajectories for exploiting the potential of school staffs in combating violent radicalisation and extremism. 

Luis Simón
Tomohiko Satake

Taking the 2019 EU-Japan Strategic Partnership Agreement (SPA) as its point of departure, this paper puts forward a number of specific proposals to further EU-Japan maritime security cooperation in the Indian Ocean region. It begins by discussing recent developments in EU and Japanese security policy, and briefly outlines the political and geo-strategic drivers of EU-Japan security cooperation, as well as its limitations. Next, it identifies maritime security and the Indian Ocean region as two areas that have a great potential for greater EU-Japan security cooperation. It then discusses a specific proposal to further EU-Japan security cooperation: the setting up of an Indian Ocean Maritime Capacity Building Initiative.

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While countries in the West have suffered from domestic struggles, the global crisis caused by COVID-19 has become an opportunity for public diplomacy for several countries in the East. Once having the second largest outbreak in the world behind China, South Korea succeeded in flattening the curve quickly thanks to swift government intervention and joined the soft power race immediately. However, the initiative was purposefully connected to public diplomacy at home with the aim of winning the 21st legislative election. Promoted as “South Korea’s corona-diplomacy” by government campaigns, the victory against the novel coronavirus narrative was deliberately employed to get domestic consensus behind approving the Moon administration, whose strategy achieved its objective.

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Giulia Tercovich
Maria Giulia Amadio Vicerè

Ten years ago the Lisbon Treaty reformed the role of the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (HR/VP) and established the European External Action Service (EEAS). How are these institutional actors addressing today’s Covid-19 crisis? By examining the HR/VP and EEAS’ activities in response to the Covid-19 crisis this contribution provides insights on both the supranational dimension of EU external action and the intergovernmental Common Foreign and Security Policy. 

Even if it is too early to provide answers, this contribution looks at the role of the HR/VP as Vice President of the European Commission responsible for the coordination among the Commissioners with external portfolios, as chair of the Foreign Affairs Council (FAC), as representative of the EU in international meetings and as leader of the EU Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) and of the EEAS and it provides some preliminary reflections on the current developments in EU foreign policy through the lenses of academic research and suggests future avenues of research.

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Folashade Ajayi
Laura Westerveen

Across all areas of society, COVID-19 has had a profound impact. Racism has been no exception. To address how COVID-19 impacts racism in Europe, it is first necessary to sketch out the different dimensions of racism. There are both more visible and subtle manifestations of racism. The most dominant perception of racism in Europe is that of direct racism, as manifested in negative or hurtful experiences or incidents resulting from intentional discriminatory behaviour. Racism is assigned a marginal position in societies when it is perpetrated by individuals or groups of the radical right. Other forms of racism operate more indirectly and (re)produce discrimination and exclusion of racialised minorities through public discourses and institutions.

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Serena D’Agostino

For those at the crossroads of racism and poverty, such as many European Roma, the COVID-19 pandemic acts as an amplifier of existing inequalities and discrimination. The coronavirus outbreak stunningly emphasizes the fragilities of our contemporary democracies. Current social and political structures are in fact proving inadequate to face the urgencies of those who live ‘on the margins’ of our cities, communities, educational, labor and health systems.  

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Yijia Huang

As Coronavirus (and the disease caused by it, COVID-19) spreads throughout the globe, reported cases of racial slurs and violent attacks have risen dramatically. Some victims have been harassed verbally or physically on the streets or in public transports; others were prohibited from going to schools or workplaces. Many victims, wearing face masks or not, shared their experiences of being stigmatized and discriminated against because the perpetrators associated this disease with race, or a certain group of people who are perceived as carriers of the virus. Since this disease started in Wuhan China, Chinese people bear the brunt of prejudice and racism, as well as other East Asians. 

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Florian Trauner

The COVID-19 pandemic is a game-changer for asylum seekers seeking to come to, or who are already in the European Union (EU) – certainly so in the short-term but most likely in the medium- to long term as well. It is becoming increasingly difficult for  asylum seekers to get access to rights and opportunities. However, this is not a claim holding equal value for all EU member states. Portugal, for instance, has provided asylum seekers (and other migrants) with temporary access to full citizenship rights. This temporary status allows them to use the country’s healthcare facilities similarly to Portuguese citizens. 

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