Recent Publications

Karen Stoffelen
Mohammad Salman

This article explores the assessment of foreign academic certificates in Flanders between January 2014 and February 2019. It examines data NARIC (National Academic and Professional Recognition and Information Centre) Flanders gathered on its applicants, their applications, and its subsequent decisions. As professional recognitions, providing access to regularised professions in Flanders, are given by the designated authorities in their field, it would go beyond the scope of this article.

In the descriptive result part, graphs illustrate the distribution of several characteristics of the applicants, their applications, and the decisions. In the explanatory result part, logistic regression analyses explore the influence of these characteristics on the decision of NARIC Flanders. The goal of this article is twofold. On the one hand, it aims to contribute to the scarce literature on the procedures for the recognition of foreign certificates in Flanders; on the other hand, it aims to contribute to the public debate on the integration of migrants in the labour market.

Stoffelen, Karen., and SALMAN, Mohammad (2020), "Determinants of the Recognition of Foreign Certificates in Flanders", Refugee Survey Quarterly, Vol. 39, No, (2): pp 207–243.

Marco Giuli

Giuli, Marco (2020), "Bringing Paris into the EU’s Energy Infrastructure Policy: What Future for Gas?", IAI Commentary, 20:47, June 2020 

Dean Vucinic
Fabiana Rodrigues Leta
Sheeja Janardhanan

This volume presents several multidisciplinary approaches to the visual representation of data acquired from experiments. As an expansion of these approaches, it is also possible to include data examination generated by mathematical-physical modeling. Imaging Systems encompass any subject related to digital images, from fundamental requirements for a correct image acquisition to computational algorithms that make it possible to obtain relevant information for image analysis.
In this context, the book presents selected contributions of a special session at the Conference on Advanced Computational Engineering and Experimenting (ACE-X) 2016. 


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Wolfgang Obergassel
Lukas Hermwille
Sebastian Oberthür

In their new discussion paper, Wolfgang Obergassel and Lukas Hermwille from the Global Climate Governance Research Unit at the Wuppertal Institute and Sebastian Oberthür from the Institute for European Studies at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel discuss how international climate policy can contribute to a green recovery. 

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Sofie Hamdi
Mohammad Salman

In light of growing tensions in the Persian Gulf between Iran and Saudi Arabia, the search for a formula of security in the five small Gulf States—Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE)—has become a complex issue. The question that arises is how these small Gulf States can maintain security and stability in the prevailing scenario. As the weaknesses of the small Gulf States tends to polarize the region even more, it is argued that a hedging strategy can best capture the security dilemma that the small Gulf States are facing. This article examines how the five small Gulf States are facing the current security dilemma by following (or not) a hedging strategy. The results of a qualitative content analysis of news articles, official government's documents, and academic literature show that the Gulf States vary in warmth toward Iran or Saudi Arabia. Oman, and to a lesser extent Kuwait, seem to have good relations with both sides. Qatar currently enjoys relatively warm relations with Iran, while the UAE and Bahrain lean more toward the Saudi side.

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With contributions from Przemysław Biskup, Benjamin Bodson, Andreas Eisl, Elvire Fabry, Agata Gostyńska-Jakubowska, David Henig, Kirsty Hughes, Juha Jokela, Carsten Jung, Rem Korteweg, Alexander Mattelaer, Anand Menon, Jonathan Portes, Nicolai von Ondarza and Alan Wager.

Brexit is an irreversible fact. Everyone will be worse off. But what are the exact ramifications, for the UK, the EU, and the partnership between the two?

This book examines the political, economic, social and institutional implications of the UK's departure from the EU in different policy fields, including trade, defence and security, foreign policy, judicial cooperation, migration and mobility, as well as its impact on UK politics and EU integration. 

Besides thinking through the consequences of Brexit, the authors consider the ongoing negotiations and the possibility of the EU and UK failing to agree on a deal before 31 December 2020. They also look at the dramatic impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and conclude that, given the related health, economic and social crises, the transition period must be extended. 

The publication also holds a few lessons on what the EU could and should take away from this experience. As the EU's chief Brexit negotiator, Michel Barnier, says in the book's foreword: "We must take the time to listen to our citizens, to understand them, and to provide answers for their concerns. It is too late for the British regions, but it is not too late for the rest of Europe."

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  • As the focus shifts from emergency towards recovery, an EU-wide approach will be needed more than ever.
  • The economic constraints associated to Covid-19 constitute both a challenge and an opportunity for the European Green Deal ambitions, depending on the design of emergency and recovery policies.
  • Post crisis, ensuring viable value and supply chains of basic materials industries will be critical.
Jonas Lefevere
Stefaan Walgrave
Jonas Lefevere
Henrik Bech Seeberg
Stefaan Walgrave


This paper investigates whether parties’ issue attacks can successfully discredit their rivals’ issue evaluations. Existing research demonstrates how a party can influence voters’ perceptions of itself on a single dimension of issue competition, but research showing the impact of negative campaigning on parties’ issue evaluations remains limited. Based on novel experimental evidence, we test the impact of three different types of issue attacks – attacking the rival’s position, competence, or commitment on the issue – on voters’ evaluations of the rival party on three issue dimensions, namely position, competence, and commitment. The findings indicate that commitment and position attacks depress the rival party’s issue evaluations on that dimension, whereas competence attacks do not. Moreover, positional attacks lower position evaluations and competence evaluations but increase commitment evaluations. Finally, the effectiveness of attacks varies between issues, and party preference moderates the effects of issue attacks.

KEYWORDS: issue ownership, political parties, position, competence, commitment, negative campaigning

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Jonas Lefevere