Understanding and Strengthening European Union-Canada Relations in Law of the Sea and Ocean Governance 

Erik Franckx
Timo Koivurova
Aldo Chircop
Erik J. Molenaar
David L. VanderZwaag

Canada and the European Union account for much of the world's coastal and ocean areas, capabilities and activities. Despite well publicised differences, international ocean relations between the two are generally marked more by convergence than divergence. By and large, differences are resolved in a non-confrontational manner. Canada's "ocean" policy and the European Commission's "maritime" policy are very similar in purpose, direction and content. This book explores the ocean governance practices of these two entities, focusing on selected themes. Leading scholars from Canada (Dalhousie University) and the EU (Northern Institute for Environmental and Minority Law (Arctic Centre/University of Lapland), Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Utrecht University) explore key marine sectors and issues and their projection in the international area from a comparative perspective. These include ocean policy development and implementation; regional fisheries management organisations; Arctic policy; maritime spatial planning; illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing; vessel-source polution; introduction of exotic species through ships' ballast waters; renewable ocean energy; maritime safety and security. This cooperative research project was funded by the Directorate-General for External Relations European Commission.